Henry VIII's reformation, 1534-5

Holinshed 1577, Vol. II, 1562-3 (1534/5, 25-26 Henry VIII)

The acte of establishing of the Crowne. In this Parliament also was made the acte of succession, for the establishing of the Crowne, to the whiche every person beyng of lawfull age shoulde be sworne.

Ambass-adors forth of Scotland. On Monday the three & twentith of Marche in the Parliament time, were solemnely receyued into London Ambassadors from James the fifth King of Scottes, the Byshop of Aberdine, the Abbot of Kynlos, and Adam Otterborne the Kings attourney, with diuers Gentlemen on them attendaunte, whiche were broughte to the Taylers Hall, and there lodged. And on the day of the Annunciation they were brought to the kings Palayce at Westminster, where they shewed their commission and message, for the which the king appoynted them dayes to counsayle.

During the Parliament time, every Sunday at Paules Crosse preached a Bishop, declaring the Pope not to bee supreeme heade of the Church.

The Lordes sworne to the succession. The .xxx. day of March was the Parliament proroged, and there euerie Lorde, knight, and burges, and all other were sworne to the Acte of succession, and subscribed their handes to a parchment fixed to the same. The Parliament was proroged till the thirde of Novembre next. After this were Commissioners sent into all parts of the realme, to take the othe of al men and women to the act of succession. Doctor Iohn Fisher, and sir Thomas Moore knight, and doctor Nicholas Wilson Parson of Saint Thomas Apostles in London, expressly denied at La(m)beth before the Archbishop of Canterb. to receyue that oth. The two first stood in their opinion as to the verie death (as after ye shall heare) but doctor Wilson was better aduised at length, & so dissembling the matter escaped out of further daunger.

An. Reg. 26. The .ix. of July was the Lord Dacres of the North arraigned at Westminster of high treason, where the Duke of Norffolke sat as Iudge, and high steward of England. The sayd Lorde Dacres being brought to the barre with the Axe of the Tower before him, after his Inditement read, so improued the same, answering every part and matter therein conteyned, and so plainly and directly confuted his accusers, whiche were there readie to auouch their accusations, that to theyr great shames, and his high honor, he was founde that day by his Peeres not guiltie, whereof the Commons not a little reioised, as by their showt and crie made at those wordes, not guiltie, they freely testified.

The .xxij. of July was John Frith burned in Smithfield, for the opinion of the Sacrament: and with him the same time, & at the same stake, suffred also one Andrew Hewet, a yong man, by his occupation a Tayler.

Stow The .xj. of August were all the places of the obseruant Friers suppressed, as Greenwich, Canterburie, Richmont, Newarke, and Newcastell, and in their places were set Augustin Friers, and the obseruant Friers were placed in the rowmths of the gray Friers.

The .xxj. of September Doctor Taylor maister of the Rolles, was discharged of that office, and Thomas Cromwell sworne in hys place the .ix. of October.

The Parliament againe beginneth. Moreouer the thirde of November, the Parliament began againe, in the which was concluded the Act of Supremacie, which authorized the kings highnesse to be supreme head of the church of England, and the authoritie of the Pope abolished out of the realme.

In the same Parliament also was gyuen to the king, the first fruites and tenthes of all spirituall dignities and promotions.

This yeare came the great Admiral of France into Engla(n)d, Ambassador from the French king, and was honorably receyued.

The Admiral of France cometh in Ambassade into England. In this time dyed the Earle of Kildare, prisoner in the Tower, and his son Thomas FitzGaret began to rebell, and tooke all the kings ordinance, and sent to the Emperor, requiring him to take his part. Also he slue the bishop of Dublyn, and robbed all suche as woulde not obey him.

In the beginning of this yeare, the Duke of Norffolke, and the Bishop of Elie went to Caleys, and thither came the Admirall of Fraunce.

The .xxij. of Aprill, the Prior of the Chartereux at London, the Prior of Beuall, the Prior of Exham, Reynalds a brother of Sion, & Iohn Vicar of Thistleworth, were arraigned and condemned of treason, and thereupon drawne, hanged and quartered at Tiburne, the fourth of May. Their heades & quarters were set over the bridge and gates of the citie, one quarter excepted, which was set vp at the Chartereux at London.

The eight of May, the king commaunded that all belonging to the Court should poll theyr heades, and to give ensemple, caused his owne heade to be polled, and his beard from thenceforth was cut round, but not shauen.

1535 The .xix. of Iune were three Monkes of the Charterhouse hanged, drawne, and quartered at Tyburne, and their heades and quarters set vp about London, for denying the king to bee supreme heade of the Church. Their names were, Exmew, Middlemoore, and Nudigate.

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Holinshed 1587, Vol. II, 937-8

The act of establishing the crowne. In this parlement also was made the act of succession for the establishing of the crowne, to the which euerie person being of lawfull age should bee sworne. Ambass-adors foorth of Scotland. On mondaie the three & twentith of March in the parlement time, were solemnlie received into London ambassadours from Iames the fift kingof Scots, the bishop of Aberdine, the abbat of Kinlos, and Adam Otterborne the kings attournie, with diuerse gentlemen on them attendant, which were brought to the tailors hall, and there lodged. And on the daie of the Annunciation, The popes supremacie denied in sermons.they were brought to the kings palace at Westminster, where they shewed their commission and message, for the which the king appointed them daies to counsell. During the parlement time, euerie sundaie at Paules crosse preached a bishop, declaring the pope not to be supreme head of the church.

The lords sworne to the succession. The thirtith of March was the parlement proroged, and there euerie lord, knight, and burges, and all other were sworne to the act of succession, and subscribed their hands to a parchment fixed to the same. The parlement was proroged till the third of November next. After this were commissioners sent into all parts of the realms, to take the oth of all men and women to the act of succession. Doctor Iohn Fisher, and sir Thomas More knight, and doctor Nicholas Wilson parson of saint Thomas apostles in London, expreslie denied at Lambeth before the archbishop of Canturburie, to receiue that oth. The two first stood in their opinion to the verie death (as after ye shall heare) but doctor Wilson was better aduised at length, and so dissembling the matter escaped out of further danger.

Ab. Fl. Ex Edw. Hall 224. Woolfes wife a notable harlot. ¶ In this yeere it chanced that two merchant strangers fell in loue with a harlot, which was called Woolfes wife, and this harlot had often hanted the strangers chambers. And so on a time the said harlot appointed these strangers to come to Westminster, and she had prepared for them a bote, in the which bote was but one man to row which was a strong theefe, and in the end of the bote laie Woolfe hir husband, couered with a leather that botemen vse to couer their cushins with, and so these strangers sat them down mistrusting nothing. Now when this boteman had brought them as farre as a place called the turning tree, suddenlie stepped vp the said Woolfe, and with his dagger thrust the one of them through: The end of vnlawful loue and lust. the other cried out to safe his life and offred great sums of monie to the boteman and him to saue his life. But no proffers would be heard nor mercie would they extend, but as cruell murtherers without pitie slue the other also, The reward of murther committed through couetousnesse.and bound them face to face, and so threw them into the Thames in the foresaid place, where they were long after before they were found. But immediatlie the harlot Woolfes wife went to the strangers chambers, & tooke from thence as much as she could come by. And at the last she and hir husband (as they deserued) were apprehended, arreigned, and hanged at the aforesaid turning tree.

Anno Reg. 26. The lord Dacres of the north arreigned. On the ninth of Julie was the lord Dacres of the north arreigned at Westminster of high treason, where the duke of Norffolke sate as iudge and high steward of England. The said lord Dacres being brought to the barre, with the axe of the Tower before him, after his indictment read, so improoued the same, answering euery part and matter therein conteined, and so plainlie and directlie confuted his accusers, which were there readie to auouch their accusations, that to their great shames, and his high honor, he was found that day by his peeres not guiltie, whereof the commons not a little reioised, as by their shout and crie made at those words, not guiltie, they freelie testified.

Iohn Frith burned. The two and twentith of Iulie was Iohn Frith burned in Smithfield, for the opinion of the sacrament: and with him the same time, and at the same stake, suffered also one Andrew Hewet, a yoong man, by his occupation a tailor. Iohn Stow. Frieries suppressed. The eleuenth of August were all the places of the obseruant friers suppressed, as Greenwich, Canturburie, Richmont, Newarke, and Newcastell, and in their places were set Augustine friers, and the obseruant friers were placed in the roomes of the graie friers. ¶ The one and twentith of September, doctor Tailor master of the rolles, was discharged of that office, and Thomas Cromwell sworne in his place the ninteenth of October. Moreouer the third of Nouember, the parlement began againe, in the which was concluded the act of supremacie, which authorised the kings highnesThe admerall of France com(m)eth in ambassage into England. to be supreme head of the church of England, and the authoritie of the pope abolished out of the realme. ¶ In the same parlement also was giuen to the king, the first fruits and tenths of all spirituall dignities and promotions. This yeare came the great admerall of France into England, ambassadour from the French king, and was honorablie receiued.

1535 In this time died the earle of Kildare, prisoner in the Tower, and his sonne Thomas Fitzgaret began to rebell, and tooke all the kings ordinance, and sent to the emperour, requiring him to take his part: also he slue the bishop of Dublin, and robbed all such as would not obeie him. Anno Reg. 27. In the beginning of this yeare, the duke of Norffolke and the bishop of Elie went to Calis, and thither came the admerall of France. Iohn Stow. Certeine priors arreigned and executed for treason. On the two & twentith of Aprill the prior of the Charterhouse at London, the prior of Beuall, the prior of Exham, Reinalds a brother of Sion, & Iohn vicar of Thistleworth, were arreigned and condemned of treason: and thereupon drawne, hanged and quartered at Tiburne the fourth of Maie: their heads and quarters were set ouer the bridge & gates of the citie, one quarter excepted, which was set up at the Charterhouse at London. ¶ On the eight of Maie, the king commanded that all belonging to the court should poll their heads, & to giue example, caused his owne head to be polled, and his beard from thencefoorth was cut round, but not shauen, which fashion the courtiers imbraced, and would (no doubt) have put in practise, though they had not beene thereunto bound by precept: for the people imitate the prince, as the poet long ago well noted, saieng:

Regis ad exemplum totus componitur orbis.

Iohn Stow. pag. 1004. Hollanders condemned for heretikes. ¶ The fiue and twentie daie of Maie, was in saint Paules church at London examined nineteene men and six women borne in Holland, whose opinions were, first, that in Christ is not two natures, God and man: secondlie, that Christ tooke neither flesh nor bloud of the virgin Marie: thirdlie, that children borne of infidels shall be saued: fourthlie, that baptisme of children is to none effect: fiftlie, that the sacrament of Christs bodie is but bread onelie: sixtlie, that he, who after his baptisme sinneth wittinglie, sinneth deadlie, and cannot be saued. Fourteene of them were condemned, a man & a woman of them were burned in Smithfield, the other twelue were sent to other townes there to be burnt.

Moonks of ye Charterhouse executed. On the nineteenth of Iune were three moonkes of the Charterhouse hanged, drawne and quartered at Tiburne, and their heads and quarters set up about London, for denieng the king to be supreme head of the church: their names were, Exmew, Middlemoore, and Nudigate...

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